A table provides information on the risk of health outcomes for exposure by study, encompassing research on six continents."There is extensive evidence on the many harms of air pollution on children's health," says Perera.
"A mountain of evidence on air pollution's harms to children." Science Daily. The beneficial effects of exercise are more important for our health than the negative effects of air pollution, in relation to the risk of premature mortality, new research shows.
Indoor air pollution (IAP) caused by solid fuel use and/or traditional cooking stoves is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59 (4): 908-913.
"Our paper presents these findings in a convenient fashion to support clean air and climate change policies that protect children's health." The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that more than 40 percent of the burden of environmentally related disease and about 90 percent of the burden of climate change is borne by children under five, although that age group constitutes only 10 percent of the global population.
The direct health impacts in children of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion include adverse birth outcomes, impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and potentially childhood cancer.
The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimates that IAP is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide and 3.7% in high mortality developing countries.
Despite the magnitude of this problem, social scientists have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this issue and to test strategies for reducing IAP. Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects on Youth.
In addition to impacts on mortality, IAP may have long lasting effects on general health and well-being: early exposure to IAP during childhood may stifle lung development, suggesting that the cost of this pollution may continue later in life. Monitoring and Evaluation of Improved Cookstove Programs for Indoor Air Quality and Stove Performance.
In fact, a growing literature indicates that environmental insults at early ages can have long lasting influences on human health and productivity (e.g., Almond 2006). Berkeley, CA: Indoor Air Pollution Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, pp.
The paper in the journal Environmental Research is the first comprehensive review of the associations between various fossil fuel combustion pollutants and multiple health effects in children in the context of assessing the benefits of air pollution and climate change policies.
The researchers say their goal is to expand the kinds of health outcomes used in calculations of the health and economic benefits of implementing clean air and climate change policies which are largely limited to the effects of air pollution on premature deaths and other outcomes in adults.