Australian Federation Essay

Australian Federation Essay-15
Federalism reform must deal with at least three challenges. The other is to accept that, for reasons of convenience, the Commonwealth imposes most taxes but that it does not “own” the proceeds.Instead, each level of government is entitled to a share in joint tax revenues commensurate with its expenditure responsibilities, and for the use of which it is directly accountable to the voters.

Federalism reform must deal with at least three challenges. The other is to accept that, for reasons of convenience, the Commonwealth imposes most taxes but that it does not “own” the proceeds.Instead, each level of government is entitled to a share in joint tax revenues commensurate with its expenditure responsibilities, and for the use of which it is directly accountable to the voters.

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And democracy itself is undermined, by erosion of the principal mechanism for democratic control of governments, through parliaments, by the people.

Recalibrating the way that federation works does not involve a return to 1901, claims to the contrary notwithstanding.

Others argue that separate and distinct Australian cultures have existed for a long time, as an example, Aborigines.

Aboriginal cultures dating back thousands of years took many forms, with over 100 separate languages, and with widespread social networks making it necessary for Aboriginal people to be multilingual to communicate.

A separate British-influenced Australian culture is also said to Australia’s Cultural Development Australia has been influenced by migrant cultures from over 30 countries but of these the strongest cultural influences up until the Second World War were British and Irish, with the highest percentage of immigrants into Australia being of British or Irish origin.

Australia's earliest national and cultural identity developed from these British, Irish and other European origins.Cheryl Saunders does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.The reform of Australia’s federation is under review.Substantial transfers are needed from one to the other.Because the Constitution does not contemplate this degree of fiscal imbalance, it also does not clearly displace the assumption that the government that is responsible for raising money is also accountable for spending it (as occurs in some other federations, of which Germany is an example).Since World War II, however, the Commonwealth has acquired a monopoly over the major tax sources, leaving the states with a range of minor taxes, which continues to shrink.The Commonwealth thus has much more money than it needs for its own constitutional responsibilities to the public; the states have much less for theirs.Doubts about the constitutionality of this practice have caused further concentration of power in the executive, diminishing accountability through Parliament.Money is not the only driver of integration: the other is an urge to secure uniformity in legislation and its implementation across a wide and increasing range of policy areas.The entanglement of government functions has been driven largely, although not entirely, by money.On the face of the Constitution, both the Commonwealth and states can impose almost any form of tax, with the exception of taxes on goods, which are prohibited to the states.

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