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First, that "reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it," and second, that it teaches primarily that "being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life liberty or possessions." Hence, right from the beginning of the essay, Locke places the right to possessions on the same level as the right to life, health, and liberty.
The problem he faced was to explain how commonly available resources can become legitimate private property which excludes the right of other men. The labour of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his.
Locke begins his argument by identifying the one form of property against which no other man could possibly have a claim in a world of political equals, the property each man has in his own person. Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joyned to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property.
John Locke was an English physician as well as a philosopher who lived during the 1600s.
He was particularly influential during the Enlightenment, for his ideas on liberalism and especially the social contract theory.
The works of Willmoore Kendall, Leo Strauss, and C. Mac Pherson all argued that Locke was not at all what he was supposed to be, and they thereby opened up a new investigation of the meaning and importance of Locke's theory of property in his political thought.
The outline of Locke's theory of property in the In this state of nature, according to Locke, men were born free and equal: free to do what they wished without being required to seek permission from any other man, and equal in the sense of there being no natural political authority of one man over another.
is a collection of a few of Locke’s most important works that was edited by David Wootton, a professor of history and expert on English speaking countries, and others, such as France and Italy.
The Political Writings of John Locke was first published in 1993.
In this collection, Locke touches on subjects ranging from Christianity to liberalism.
especially, it is generally recognized, Locke argues the case for individual natural rights, limited government depending on the consent of the governed, separation of powers within government, and most radically, the right of people within a society to depose rulers who fail to uphold their end of the social contract.