Essays On Successful Aging

Essays On Successful Aging-72
In 2008 it was discovered that inactivation of only two genes in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana leads to its conversion into a potentially immortal perennial plant. Clonal immortality apart, there are certain species whose individual lifespans stand out among Earth's life-forms, including the bristlecone pine at 5062 years The genetic aspect has also been demonstrated in studies of human centenarians.In laboratory settings, researchers have demonstrated that selected alterations in specific genes can extend lifespan quite substantially in yeast and roundworms, less so in fruit flies and less again in mice.Older adults, however, may not suffer depression as much as younger adults, and were paradoxically found to have improved mood despite declining physical health.

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Notwithstanding the similarly low calorie intake, the diet composition differed between the two studies (notably a high sucrose content in the Wisconsin study), and the monkeys have different origins (India, China), initially suggesting that genetics and dietary composition, not merely a decrease in calories, are factors in longevity.

However, in a comparative analysis in 2014, the Wisconsin researchers found that the allegedly non-starved NIA control monkeys in fact are moderately underweight when compared with other monkey populations, and argued this was due to the NIA's apportioned feeding protocol in contrast to Wisconsin's truly unrestricted ad libitum feeding protocol.

This regulation would depend on changes in gene expression that affect the systems responsible for maintenance, repair and defense responses.

Damage-related factors include internal and environmental assaults to living organisms that induce cumulative damage at various levels.

Programmed ageing should not be confused with programmed cell death (apoptosis).

In 1934, it was discovered that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats and this has motivated research into delaying and preventing ageing.

fall into two main categories, programmed and damage-related.

Programmed factors follow a biological timetable, perhaps one that might be a continuation of the one that regulates childhood growth and development.

In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes.

Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand.

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