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The challenge to both is to permit autonomy without oppressive accountability, and to give staff and students the freedom to think, speculate and research.These are the very conditions of the personal and collective creativity that are the sources of a university’s deepest benefits to its society.
The US boasts 72 representatives in this year’s ranking, including 20 in the top 50.
Outside the seven top math schools in the top 10, other high-ranking US institutions for mathematics include: California Institute of Technology (Caltech) (12).
Of the 185 top math schools in Europe, 35 are in the UK, including eight in the top 100.
Leaving aside the Oxbridge duo in the top 10, other high-ranking UK universities for this subject include Imperial College London (11).
A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities." Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks fairly solid ... Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM).
it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." and "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world... Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria. C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial.
For instance, ARWU is repeatedly criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g.
number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research (or teaching) quality; thus a merger between two equally-ranked institutions will almost double the merged institutions score and give it a higher ranking, without any change in quality.
Its graduates learn to seek the true meaning of things: to distinguish between the true and the merely seemingly true, to verify for themselves what is stable in that very unstable compound that often passes for knowledge.
It is the complex, interacting whole of the university that is the source of the separate economic, social, cultural and utilitarian benefits valued by society.