Stellar Nucleosynthesis Supernova

Stellar Nucleosynthesis Supernova-32
The latter synthesizes the lightest, most neutron-poor, isotopes of the elements heavier than iron from preexisting heavier isotopes.

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Realize that nuclear fusion in stars can occur with negligible impact on the abundances of the chemical elements.

Elements heavier than nickel are comparatively rare owing to the decline with atomic weight of their nuclear binding energies per nucleon, but they too are created in part within supernovae.

The continuation of this nucleosynthesis process will be made difficult by the high Coulomb barrier that the nuclei have to overcome.

However, a massive star reaches the stage of Iron synthesis and ends up with an Iron core.

Hoyle could not yet convincingly discern how silicon burning would happen, although he foresaw that it must be the final core fusion prior to operation of his thermal-equilibrium picture of iron formation.

He also predicted that the collapse of the evolved cores of massive stars was "inevitable" owing to their increasing rate of energy loss by neutrinos.Evidence of nucleosynthesis in other stars has been discovered in S-Type stars by Merrill (1952).Population II stars are poor in metals whereas Population I are 2 orders of magnitude richer.The r-process isotopes are roughly a 100,000 times less abundant than the primary chemical elements fused in supernova shells above.Furthermore, other nucleosynthesis processes in supernovae are thought to also be responsible for some nucleosynthesis of other heavy elements, notably, the proton capture process known as the rp-process, the slow capture of neutrons (s-process) in the Helium-burning shells and in the carbon-burning shells of massive stars, and a photodisintegration process known as the γ-process (gamma-process).More massive stars burn Hydrogen into Helium through a chain of reactions involving Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen (inherited from previous stars) through a process called the .These 3 elements play the role of a catalyst to synthesise 4 protons into Helium with the same energy outcome as the PP chain.If the star is massive enough this rises the temperature to a level where C .If the star is less massive (about 1 solar mass) it enters the white dwarf degeneracy state.Because Iron is the most bound element, all subsequent reactions will be endothermic (requiring energy supply) and no more energy supply will be provided to support the star against gravitational collapse.The star enters a runaway phase leading to supernova explosion where heavier elements such as Uranium, Lead and Gold will be synthesised through a combinations of neutron capture and decay processes.

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